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高尔夫果岭枯草层

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发表于 2010-12-24 10:11:34

作者:伊恩.布彻 翻译:汪娅茜 高缘网博客:http://www.igolfyou.cn/15787

This article intends to explain the importance of organic matter management in relation to the playing surface and turf quality parameters

这篇文章有意解释与草皮和草坪质量参数相关的有机质管理的重要性。

Golf is undergoing many changes, and the debates concerning golf course design, club equipment advances and ball technology will always be heard in the clubhouse. However, the essential challenge of the game, that reflects the skill of the golfer on and around the greens must remain the same. And for that to be the case, an essential objective to be achieved by the Greenkeeper is the management of the organic content of the soil profile, or put another way, the thatch layer.

高尔夫正经历着诸多的变化。在会所,我们总是能听到一些关于高尔夫球场设计,球场维护设备升级,以及打球技术的讨论。然而,高尔夫最主要的变化却反映出高尔夫球手的能力在果岭上及其他方面一定保持了一致。基于此点考虑,草坪管理者将面临着一个重要的目标---土壤剖面有机质含量的管理,换句话说,土壤腐殖质层(枯草层)的管理。

Thatch can be described as the layer of organic residue located immediately between the sward and the soil surface. This biomass material is in a continuing state of decomposition, ultimately becoming that semi-stable material called humus. However an imbalance between biomass production and breakdown can result in an excessive layer that causes problems for both greenkeeper and golfer alike.

土壤腐殖质层可被定义为在草皮与土壤表面之间的一层有机残留物。这个生物质是在一个连续的分解状态下,最后生成了一种半稳定的物质叫做腐殖质。但是,在生物(微生物)生产和分解不平衡的情况下,会产生出多余的一层(草坪枯草层或腐殖质层),对草坪管理人员和高尔夫球手都会带来问题。

The agronomic issues are well documented; too much thatch causes turfgrass swards to retain surface moisture, becoming susceptible to disease and insect injury, resulting in shallow rooting which is less resistant to drought, foot traffic and potential for poa annua invasion.

农学论文(在这方面)有很好记录,太多的腐殖质层(枯草层)会引起草坪保留表层水分,从而削弱了对病虫害的抵抗力,导致根系很浅,而后对干旱,践踏和一年生早熟禾侵入的抵抗力均下降了。

However, an equal level of consideration must be given to the playing experience. If the quality of the golf shot is to be truly reflected, then the energy within the golf ball must remain alive on impact with the turf; this can be described as the resiliency or firmness of the turf. If we have excessive thatch, a large plug mark will indicate the balls energy was absorbed on impact, thereby disguising the quality of ball strike from the golfer. Equally important, as the ball moves along the surface, a smooth, true ball roll is desired, which can be disrupted by indentations and disease scars caused by too much thatch.

然而,打球经验也应该有相同的考虑水准。如果击球质量确实能够反映情况,高尔夫球中的能量应该会使球在草坪上撞击后仍然活动;这通常被描述为草坪的弹性或坚实度。如果我们拥有过多的草坪腐殖质层(枯草层),(击球后在草坪上呈现的)一个大塞子状痕迹显示出球的能量在撞击后被吸收,因此掩盖了高尔夫球手的击球质量。同样重要的是,当球在草坪表面移动时,也会因太厚的腐殖质层(枯草层)而产生的锯齿状和病斑痕迹破坏了(球手)期望的光滑而精确的滚动。

Gordon Mckee, Course Manager of the Old Course, St Andrews, describes the need to satisfy the most demanding level of golfers. “We’re working towards the Sustainable agenda here; what that means is playability of the surfaces is a key factor; the firmness, the trueness, the speed all relate to the reaction of the ball with the surface. If you’re not in control of the thatch production in your surfaces, you lose all of that. It’s that important.”

圣·安德鲁斯老球场的球场经理Gordon Mckee描述了满足高尔夫球手最想要的层次的需要。“我们朝着可持续的工作计划去工作;这意味着草坪表层的可击打性是一个关键因素;草坪表层的紧实度,精确度,果岭球速等都与球的表现有关。如果你不能控制好果岭表层的腐殖质层(枯草层),你会失去所有的一切。这就是那么重要。”

Other than taking a look at the underlying surface and making a visual judgement, how can we tell whether we have excessive thatch?

除了查看草坪表层下方得出判断,怎么知道我们是否有过多过厚的草坪腐殖质层(枯草层)?

In practice Head Greenkeepers are beginning to appreciate the need to monitor organic matter content through professional advisory services. . Richard Windows of the STRI explains “To objectively assess the amount of organic matter in the upper soil profile we need to be more accurate than visual analysis. For this reason, loss on ignition tests in an approved laboratory is important. This also allows organic matter targets to be set and progress to be monitored over time. Implementing loss on ignition tests at four depths (0-20 mm, 20-40 mm, 40-60 mm and 60-80 mm) also show where operations need targeting. “

在实践中,通过专业咨询服务,草坪总监们开始觉察到监控有机物质含量的必要性。运动草坪研究机构(The sports turf research institute, 文中的STRI是缩写)的Richard Windows解释到:“为了更加有目的性的评估上层土壤剖面的有机质的含量,我们需要相对于视觉分析更精确的(分析)。为此,在许可的实验室里的燃烧测试的损失量(测定)是非常重要的。这也需要设定一个有机物质的指标和随时间推移所监测到的进展过程。执行燃烧损失测试分为四个深度(0-20毫米, 20-40毫米, 40-60毫米和 60-80毫米),这也能显示出哪里的操作需要设定目标。”

Much time and money can be wasted with inappropriate aeration methods if the exact depth and nature of the problem has not been properly identified.

如果没有正确标识出(草坪)问题所在的确切深度和自然特质,不恰当的打孔方式将会浪费很多的时间与金钱。

The important message for Turf Managers to understand is that thatch development, if not controlled, has repercussions on the playing qualities that define a good golf experience; one that tests the true, significant skills of the golfer, beyond the relatively simple test of distance off the tee. Neglecting that significance will have consequences for both club reputation and revenue.

给草坪经理人一个重要的信息就是,如果不加控制,草坪腐殖质层(枯草层)是会不断形成(增加)的,会给击球质量带来严重的后果。而击球质量是衡量一场好的高尔夫体验的指标,更是一个能够考验高尔夫球手真正重要的技术的指标,而不是仅仅只考验从发球台击球后球可以到达的远度。忽略了那个(草坪腐殖质曾的控制)重要性,会导致球会名利皆失的严重后果。

伊恩·布切(Ian Butcher )利特普大学MBA

爱姆伍德学院高尔夫球场管理专业教师

资深高尔夫球场管理专家

曾任英国多家著名球会的草坪总监、参与英国公开赛举办场地的草坪养护

汪娅茜:

北京林业大学理学学位&美国密歇根州立大学农学学位

北京森林假日高尔夫俱乐部草坪总监助理

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发表于 2017-6-1 06:25:29
怎么防治,还有后续文章吗?

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